Summary

Landmarks provide easy access to major structural sections spread across a multi-document publication.

Techniques

Example

Example 1 — Landmarks navigation (EPUB 3)

Landmarks are always expressed a flat list of links (no nested links).

<nav epub:type="landmarks">
   <h2>Guide</h2>
   <ol>
     <li>
       <a 
         epub:type="toc"
         href="#toc">Table of Contents</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a
         epub:type="loi"
         href="front.html#loi">List of Images</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a
         epub:type="lot"
         href="front.html#lot">List of Tables</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a 
         epub:type="bodymatter"
         href="c01.html#c01">Start of Content</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a
         epub:type="glossary"
         href="gloss.html#gloss">Glossary</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a
         epub:type="bibliography"
         href="app.html#biblio">Bibliography</a>
     </li>
     <li>
       <a
         epub:type="index"
         href="index.html#index">Index</a>
     </li>
   </ol>
</nav>

Explanation

Landmarks navigation enables quick access to major sections of the content. It is similar to ARIA landmarks, but ARIA landmarks are dynamically compiled by an assistive technology for the current page a user is on. Landmarks navigation, on the other hand, is a static list of locations that allows sections across a multi-document publication to be listed. Also, unlike ARIA landmarks, a landmarks navigation element can be made available to all users, not just users of assistive technologies.

EPUB 3

Every EPUB publication should include a guide to all the major landmarks (the landmarks nav).

The nature of each landmark must be identified in an epub:type attribute on its link element (a). Common landmark properties from the EPUB 3 Structural Semantics Vocabulary include the following:

  • bodymatter
  • toc
  • bibliography
  • index
  • glossary

Unlike the toc nav, the landmarks nav must only be a single flat listing of links.

EPUB 2

Landmarks are specified in EPUB 2 using the guide element in the NCX.

References

Frequently Asked Questions

Why should I include a landmarks nav if the toc nav already links to everything?

Not only does the landmarks nav simplify access to major sections of the publication, without having the navigate the entire table of contents, but it also facilitates user agent behaviors. A device that gives the option to automatically open to the first page of the body, for example, or provides quick links to the index or glossary can make use of the extra semantics in the landmarks nav to this end.

Do I need to include a guide in the package document?

Like the ability to include an NCX file, the guide element exists in EPUB 3 only to facilitate forwards compatibility in older user agents. You are not required to support older systems, but if you decide to you should include a guide.