Landmarks provide easy access to major structural sections spread across a multi-document publication.
- Include a landmarks navigation element. [WCAG 2.4.5]
Landmarks navigation enables quick access to major sections of the content. It is similar to ARIA landmarks, but ARIA landmarks are dynamically compiled by an assistive technology for the current page a user is on. Landmarks navigation, on the other hand, is a static list of locations that allows sections across a multi-document publication to be listed. Also, unlike ARIA landmarks, a landmarks navigation element can be made available to all users, not just users of assistive technologies.
Every EPUB publication should include a guide to all the major landmarks (the
The nature of each landmark must be identified in an
epub:type attribute on its link element
a). Common landmark properties from the EPUB 3 Structural Semantics Vocabulary include the following:
toc nav, the
landmarks nav must only be a
single flat listing of links.
Landmarks are specified in EPUB 2 using the
guide element in the NCX.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Why should I include a
landmarks navif the
toc navalready links to everything?
Not only does the
landmarks navsimplify access to major sections of the publication, without having the navigate the entire table of contents, but it also facilitates user agent behaviors. A device that gives the option to automatically open to the first page of the body, for example, or provides quick links to the index or glossary can make use of the extra semantics in the
landmarks navto this end.
- Do I need to include a
guidein the package document?
Like the ability to include an NCX file, the
guideelement exists in EPUB 3 only to facilitate forwards compatibility in older user agents. You are not required to support older systems, but if you decide to you should include a